A man eats two eggs each morning for breakfast. When he goes to the Kirana store he pays Rs. 12 a dozen. Since a dozen eggs won't last a week he normally buys two dozens at a time. One day while buying eggs he notices that the price has risen to Rs. 16. The next time he buys groceries, eggs are Rs. 22 a dozen.

When asked to explain the price of eggs the store owner says, 'The price has gone up and I have to raise my price accordingly' . This store buys 100 dozen eggs a day. He checked around for a better price and all the distributors have raised their prices. The distributors have begun to buy from the huge egg farms. The small egg farms have been driven out of business. The huge egg farms sell 100,000 dozen eggs a day to distributors. With no competition, they can set the price as they see fit. The distributors then have to raise their prices to the grocery stores. And on and on and on.

As the man kept buying eggs the price kept going up. He saw the big egg trucks delivering 100 dozen eggs each day. Nothing changed there. He checked out the huge egg farms and found they were selling 100,000 dozen eggs to the distributors daily. Nothing had changed but the price of eggs.

Then week bef ore Diwali the price of eggs shot up to Rs. 40 a dozen. Again he asked the grocery owner why and was told, 'Cakes and baking for the holiday'. The huge egg farmers know there will be a lot of baking going on and more eggs will be used. Hence, the price of eggs goes up. Expect the same thing at Christmas and other times when family cooking, baking, etc. happen.

This pattern continues until the price of eggs is Rs. 60 a dozen. The man says, ' There must be something we can do about the price of eggs'.

He starts talking to all the people in his town and they decide to stop buying eggs. This didn't work because everyone needed eggs.

Finally, the man suggested only buying what you need. He ate 2 eggs a day. On the way home from work he would stop at the grocery and buy two eggs. Everyone in town started buying 2 or 3 eggs a day.

The grocery store owner began complaining that he had too many eggs in his cooler. He told the distributor that he didn't need any eggs.

Maybe wouldn't need any all week.

The distributor had eggs piling up at his warehouse. He told the huge egg farms that he didn't have any room for eggs would not need any for at least two weeks.

At the egg farm, the chickens just kept on laying eggs. To relieve the pressure, the huge egg farm told the distributor that they could buy the eggs at a lower price.

The distributor said, ' I don't have the room for the %\$&^*&% eggs even if they were free'. The distributor told the grocery store owner that he would lower the price of the eggs if the store would start buying

again.

The grocery store owner said, 'I don't have room for more eggs. The customers are only buying 2 or 3 eggs at a time. Now if you were to drop the price of eggs back down to the original price, the customers

would start buying by the dozen again'.

The distributors sent that proposal to the huge egg farmers but the egg farmers liked the price they were getting for their eggs but, those chickens just kept on laying. Finally, the egg farmers lowered the

price of their eggs. But only a few paisa.

The customers still bought 2 or 3 eggs at a time. They said, 'when the price of eggs gets down to where it was bef ore, we will start buying by the dozen.'

Slowly the price of eggs started dropping. The distributors had to slash their prices to make room for the eggs coming from the egg farmers.

The egg farmers cut their prices because the distributors wouldn't buy at a higher price than they were selling eggs for. Anyway, they had full warehouses and wouldn't need eggs for quite a while.

And those chickens kept on laying.

Eventually, the egg farmers cut their prices because they were throwing away eggs they couldn't sell.

The distributors started buying again because the eggs were priced to where the stores could afford to sell them at the lower price.

And the customers starting buying by the dozen again.

Now, transpose this analogy to the gasoline industry.

What if everyone only bought Rs 200.00 worth of Petrol each time they pulled to the pump? The dealer's tanks would stay semi full all the time. The dealers wouldn't have room for the gas coming from the huge tanks. The tank farms wouldn't have room for the petrol coming from the refining plants. And the refining plants wouldn't have room for the oil being off loaded from the huge tankers coming from the oil fiends.

Just Rs 200.00 each time you buy gas. Don't fill up the tank of your car. You may have to stop for gas twice a week, but the price should come down.

Also, don't buy anything else at the fuel station; don't give them any more of your hard earned money than what you spend on gas, until the prices come down...'

...just think of this concept for a while.

............ ......please pass this concept around....reaching out to

the masses ...the world .....

Before attending an interview you should think about your responses to the following questions. Your answers may depend on the job or company in question, so you should go through your responses just before each interview.

Why do you want this job?
Think carefully about this question. Stress the positive aspects, which have attracted you to applying for this position. Do not mention the negative aspects of your current job or the job in question.

What qualities do you think will be required for this job?
Their advertisement for the job may help you a little bit, but you should also think of the other qualities that may be required. These may include leadership ability, supervisory skills, communication skills, interpersonal skills, problem solving, analytical skills, etc.

What can you contribute?
This is your chance to shine. Tell them about your achievements in your previous position(s) which are relevant to the new position you are applying for.

Why do you want to work for this company?
Emphasis the positive reasons why you want to join their company, but avoid aspects such as more money or shorter hours. These would not endear you to a prospective employer.

This is your chance to impress the interviewer with your knowledge of their company. Give them a run down of their products/services, sales figures, news, company figures, customers, etc.

What interests you about our product (or service)?
Again, your research into the company should aid you in answering this question.
What can we (the new company) offer that your previous company cannot offer?
Tread carefully here! Again do not mention money. Stress opportunities for personal growth, new challenges, etc.

You have not done this sort of job before. How will you cope/succeed?
Say that you are the sort of person who aims to succeed at everything you do and that you are very determined and will do whatever it takes to get the job done.

Why should we employ you?
The answer to this question will be based on your previous experience and achievements which relate to the company. At the end you could add that you think there is a good fit between you and the job, and do ask the interviewer for their opinion.
How long do you think it would be before you were making a significant contribution to the team/company?
If you think that you could contribute from day one then say so. Then turn the question round on them and say how soon would they expect it.
How ambitious are you? Would you compete for my job?
Depending on the position you are applying for you may want to sound fairly ambitious, but do not look as if you are after the interviewer's position.
What do you like and dislike about the job we are discussing?
Likes: stress things such as a new challenge or the opportunity to bring fresh experience to the company. Dislikes: Imply there is nothing to dislike about the job, which is why you are so interested.
Why did you choose a career in …?
Be positive about your reasons. If you have changed careers make a logical argument as to why you did so.
Why are you changing careers?
This question will only be asked if you are making a radical change in your career. Always stress the positive aspects of the change rather than the negative aspects of your previous career - you do not want to come across as someone who is moving just because you hate your old career. Say why you think you will be good in the new career - this should come from your experience and achievements, stress the transferable skills you have, such as leadership ability, etc.
How much does your last job resemble the one you are applying for? What are the differences?
The interviewer is trying to see how well you would fit in to the position you are applying for. So you should stress the similarities rather than the differences. When it comes to discussing the differences it will help your case if you can show that either you have done something similar in the past or that you can quickly pick up the new skills.
What do you think of the last company you worked for?
You should stress the positive aspects of your last company saying that they were a good company to work for. Tell them about the training you received or the work related experience you gained.
Why did you join your previous company? Did they live up to your expectations? Why are you leaving now?
Always be positive about your reasons for joining and leaving a company. Be very careful that you do not say anything negative about your present employer. If you do, the new company will wonder what you will say about them when you leave. You might want to stress that you are looking for a new challenge and that you feel that the company who is interviewing you fits the bill!
Explain the organisational structure in your last company and how you fitted into it?
This sort of question may be used to find out whether your old job is at a comparable level to your new job. If the new job being discussed would be a step up the ladder you will need to show that you are ready for a more demanding position. You may be able to show that you have already had many of the responsibilities and the necessary skills which would be required for the next step.
How long have you been looking for a new job?
If you have been unemployed for a long time this may be a rather tricky question to answer. But be honest. If you have been away on holiday or done some voluntary work you could mention this.
Do you prefer to work in a small, medium or large company?
Remember where you are! If the company interviewing you is a small to medium sized company say that you enjoy a close atmosphere with a good team spirit. At a large company say that you enjoy the stability of working for a large and established company.
What are you looking for in a new job?
Make sure your answer fits in with the company who is interviewing you. A suitable reply would be that you are looking for a new job where you can apply your existing skills and learn new ones.
What would your ideal job be?
Again, remember where you are! Describe the job in terms of the criteria they have used to describe their job. An ideal job might include things like challenging work, a fair rate of pay for the job, nice colleagues, good career prospects, good team atmosphere, opportunity to learn new skills, apply old skills, etc.
Are you considering any other positions at the moment?
If you are say so, but do not give too many details away - it will weaken your negotiating position later. If you do not have any other job offers at the moment just say that you have a few irons in the fire.
What did you think of your manager/supervisor?
Say that he/she was the sort of person you could learn from and you communicated well, which meant that the task in hand was completed on time.
What did you do on a day to day basis?
Stress the positive things you did including your achievements. Even if some or much of it was paperwork, you can still show your interest in the way it was tackled.
Did you increase sales or profits in your last job?
This question is only relevant for senior managers or sales people. If you have increased sales and/or profit then do not be afraid to shout about it. If you have not increased sales say why not, e.g. general downturn in the market, etc. It might then be a good idea to mention an achievement in a previous job if your performance was better there.
Have you reduced costs at your last company?
If you have reduced costs say so - companies are always looking for ways to reduce costs.
How would you describe yourself? / How would others describe you?
Pick your best attributes and achievements from your career.
Do you consider yourself successful?
You should say you do. Pick some work related achievements that are in line with the position that you are discussing.
What was your greatest success? How did you achieve it?
You should pick an achievement which is related to their needs.
What has been your biggest failure?
Try to pick a failure which you were later able to correct or something that is not really important.
How could you improve yourself?
Do not mention anything negative about yourself - the interviewer is looking for a chink in your armour.
Did you feel you progressed satisfactorily in your last job?
If you progressed faster than normal you should say so. If growth was not as good as expected then be careful how you phrase this.
Are you a leader?
State how you have successfully acted as a leader, giving examples of your successes.
How do you handle criticism?
Your answer should be along the following lines: "I always think that it is important to get feedback on how I am performing so that I can improve any areas which my manager/supervisor highlights. Do you have regular staff appraisals and a staff development plan?"
What sort of manager are you? / What makes a good manager?
You should say that it is someone who listens to other people and can delegate whilst maintaining overall control of the task at hand, bringing in the project on time and to budget. Good planning skills are essential.
Do you work well with others? Or are you a loner?
Some jobs mean that you have to work very closely with other people whilst other jobs mean that you are largely working on your own, so you need to say that you are happy in both situations.
Do you need other people around to stimulate you or are you self-motivated?
You need to say that you are self-motivated.
Are you accepted into a team quickly?
Hopefully you can answer a resounding "Yes" to this question.
Can you act on your own initiative?
You should say that you can. You could ask how much responsibility you would have.
How do you run a meeting?
You could say that you must start with an agenda and stick to it. You could add that you would try to get the views and ideas from everyone present, working in an air of co-operation. If people moved off at a tangent you would bring them back to the item being discussed.
What motivates you?
Our suggestions are career growth, opportunity to learn new skills, good co-workers, etc.
What management style gets the best results out of you?
Try and think about how you have reacted to different managers and which factors have motivated you. Do not say too much in reply to this question, because if your answer is contrary to the management style of the company they will not be keen to employ you!
Do you know how to motivate other people?
Hopefully you can say "Yes", and say that you have to find out what motivates a person and give them recognition for a job well done. You should always give them encouragement and help them when required.
Are you competitive?
Your answer depends on the sort of job you are doing. If you will be working as part of a team you will need to show that you can work in the best interests of the team and not just for your own benefit.
Are you aggressive?
If you mean by this someone who gets things done, then the answer is "Yes". You need to defuse the implications of this question.
What do you dislike doing?
Say that you are prepared to do whatever it takes to get the job done well and on time and try to do disagreeable things first to get them out of the way rather than putting them off.
What problems did you encounter in your last job? What annoyed you about your last job?
Stick to the problems that you were able to solve, i.e. "I had problem X, which I later managed to resolve by doing Y". Show that you are a person who can solve problems rather than someone who lets things get on top of them.
What would you like to avoid in your next job?
You need to be positive here and say that there is nothing in particular that you would like to avoid.
Do you feel you are ready to take on greater responsibilities?
Show how you have progressed throughout your life and how you have accepted and taken on responsibility for the actions of yourself and others. If you have not really had many work related responsibilities you can mention other responsibilities you have had outside work.
Can you work under pressure?
You need to say that you can. You could ask how much pressure the job involves.
How many hours are you prepared to work?
You would be prepared to work the necessary hours to get the job done on time.
Do you mind working for someone older than yourself? Younger than you? Of the opposite sex?
Here you can say that you are prepared to work with anyone.
What are your career goals?
Link in your goals with the company who is interviewing you.
How did you get on with your previous manager/supervisor, co-workers and subordinates?
Hopefully you can say that you got on well with everyone.
Have you been responsible for implementing ISO9000/BS5750 or Total Quality Management (TQM)?
If you have, state how you implemented it successfully. If you have not, you will need to show that you are used to working to company quality standards or that you have a methodical approach to carrying out work.
What interests do you have outside work?
Your hobbies and interests can tell an employer a lot about you, including whether you are sociable or solitary, and whether you can take on 'leadership' roles. So you should think about which interests will paint the right picture of you given the position you are discussing.
If you have changed jobs a lot you may be asked how long you would stay in the new job.
You should state that you are looking for a long-term opportunity where you can learn and develop. You could then ask them if this applies to the job being discussed.
Have you ever been fired?
If you have, you will need to handle this question with great care. Try and put yourself in as favourable light as possible without being too dismissive. If you have later been able to correct any deficiency which resulted in you being fired you should tell the interviewer.
Are you too old for this job?
Tell them that you feel that your extra experience would enable you to make a bigger contribution to their company sooner than someone younger and less experienced.
Are you too young for this job?
"No, I do not think so!" is the answer you should give and then state the reason why you are not too young. If you have a lot of experience gained in a short time, say so.
You may be over qualified for this position?
Tell them that you feel that your extra experience would enable you to make a bigger contribution sooner than someone with less experience.
Are you prepared to relocate?
If you are, say so. If you do not want to move then you do not have to accept the job - try and come across as someone who is positive.
Are you willing to travel?
Again if you are, say so. You want to sound positive, so find out how much travelling is involved before you turn down the job.
How often are you off sick?
This can be a difficult question to answer if you are frequently off sick or you have just recovered from a prolonged period of illness. If you have generally enjoyed good health and this period of illness is not typical then you should say so.
What did you earn in your last job?
You have to be very careful when answering this question because once an interviewer knows your current salary they will try and fix your next remuneration based on this figure. This may be satisfactory if you only wanted a modest rise in salary and your current salary is in line with their salary range, but, what if your current salary is substantially lower than the rate for the job, or if you want a substantial salary rise? In these cases you would be best advised to say that you do not really want to prejudice yourself by being too high or too low. Ask if you can discuss this later after the responsibilities for the job have been discussed; you may also want to ask them what the range for the job is (if you do not already know).
What level of salary are you looking for now?
Be very careful when you answer this question - you do not want to appear to be greedy. If you are applying for a specific vacancy you could ask them what the salary range is. Once they have answered you could say "I think my experience would place me at the top end of your range, don't you?" If they ask you this question fairly early on in the interview you could delay answering by saying "It is hard to discuss salary without first knowing a little bit more about the job and the responsibilities."
What will your referees say about you?
Say that you expect excellent references.
Difficult questions
If you cannot answer a question you might reply with "That's an interesting question - how would you tackle it?"
Fantasy questions
These sort of questions can be very difficult to answer. Such questions might include: "What would you do if you won the National Lottery?" You should give the answer, which in your opinion will give you the best chance of getting the job.
Questions to Ask the Interviewer
The interview is a two-way process. The company interviewing you will want to find out whether you are suitable to the position and you will want to find out if the company and position are right for you. You should therefore ensure that you have enough information to make up your mind whether you want the job. For example:
 What will be my responsibilities?
 Where will I fit into the overall organisational structure?
 Who will I report to?
 Where does he/she fit in the structure?
 Who will report to me?
 How experienced are they?
 What do you expect me to do in the first 6 months?
 What level of performance do you expect from me?
 Who are your customers?
 Where is the company going? Upwards? Expansion plans?
 What are the chances of advancement/promotion in this position? When?
 What will be my salary, benefits and bonuses? [Do not bring this up too early in the interview - wait until they are sold on you.]
 Will travelling be required in this position?
 Will relocation be required now or in the future?
 What training do you provide?
 When will you decide on the appointment?
 What is the next step?
Answering Interview Questions – Difficult Questions – Personal Questions
These questions give you the opportunity to answer in a way that enables you to provide focused information about your skills and abilities.

Here are some common examples of this type of question:

Do you consider yourself a natural leader?
The ideal answer to this is 'yes', but in reality not all of us possess the confidence required to lead. You can substitute 'natural' with either 'competent' or 'conscientious', focusing more on leading by example with good organizational and interpersonal skills. Most professional jobs require an element of leadership that you should be taking the trouble to cultivate, whether it comes naturally or not.

Tell me about yourself?
This can be a frustratingly open question, but it does give you an excellent opportunity to communicate your skills and experience. Aim to keep your answer professionally orientated, specific to the characteristics that the interviewer may want to hear. Although your objective is to show you've got the perfect profile to fulfil the role, try to do so in a friendly manner so that you can show the interviewer that you have an agreeable personality.

What are your biggest accomplishments?
Answers to this should always be job-related, impressive but also hinting that your best work is yet to come. Don't be hesitant or vague when answering this question. Show that you have a clear idea of your achievements to date.
Answering Interview Questions – Difficult Questions – Dangerous Questions
These questions give you the opportunity to overcome direct objections that the interviewer may have with your application. If these are not addressed, you will effectively rule yourself out as a serious candidate.

Here are some common examples of this type of question:

What did you dislike about your last job?
Ideally you would answer 'there was nothing I disliked', although this may not be realistic.

Hiring someone who easily fits into the existing complement of staff is very important, therefore steer clear of criticizing former colleagues or managers. Once again, if you pay attention to the company culture when they described the role to you, you can mention factors that would be likely to impress them.

How long have you been looking for another position?
If you are currently unemployed and have been looking for some time, try to minimize the 'time gap' by mentioning any other activities in which you have been involved, such as study or charity work.

If your work is of a specialist nature and you've been determined to continue in that field, point this out provided that it isn't at odds with the demands of the new role. A resourceful answer here can certainly score you points, instead of putting you at a disadvantage.

Why aren't you earning more at your this stage of your career?
This is another implied negative, which can be turned into a positive by emphasizing your desire to gain solid experience instead of continually changing jobs for the sake of money.

This question gives you scope to ask; "How much do you think I should be earning?" This could possibly lead to an offer.

Why have you changed jobs so frequently?
This is another question that can prove difficult. The best response can be to blame it on your need to gain experience and grow.

Emphasize that the variety of jobs has been good experience and that you're now more mature and settled. Questions like this can be turned around, but be careful not to dwell too much on the subject, or over-justify yourself.

Why were you made redundant?
If you were made redundant as a result of a re-organization; then this is a legitimate excuse that most recruiters will understand - they have probably been involved with laying off people themselves at some time.

Try to give acceptable reasons, such as downsizing or restructuring. Try to be brief and to matter-of-fact , encouraging the interviewer to move on.

Why were you fired?
If, however, you were fired and cannot realistically pass it off as a redundancy, then it's advisable to be open and honest whilst minimizing the reason for your dismissal. Try to portray the incident as 'one of those unlucky things that happens to the best of us' and modestly explain how you've learnt from the experience and the steps you've since taken. The objective is to put the interviewer at ease in the hope that they won't place too much importance on a reference check. It is however a good idea to reconcile with your former employers and ask them to at least give you a fair reference.
How to Answer Interview Questions
Here are eight of the most commonly asked (and basic) interviewing questions. Do yourself and the prospective employer a favor, and give them some thought before the interview occurs.
Why do you want this job?

Why do you want to leave your current job?

What are your personal and professional goals?

What do you like most about your current job?

Where do you see yourself in five years?

What are your strengths?

What are your weaknesses?

What do you like least about your current job?
The last question is probably the hardest to answer: What do you like least about your current job?
I’ve found that rather than pointing out the faults of others (as in, “I can’t stand the office politics,” or, “My boss is a jerk”), it’s best to place the burden on yourself (“I feel I’m ready to exercise a new set of professional muscles,” or, “The type of technology I’m interested in isn’t available to me now.”). By answering in this manner, you’ll avoid pointing the finger at someone else, or coming across as a whiner or complainer. It does no good to speak negatively about others.
I suggest you think through the answers to the eight questions above for two reasons.
First, it won’t help your chances any to hem and haw over fundamental issues such as these. (The answers you give to these types of questions should be no-brainers.)
And second, the questions will help you evaluate your career choices before spending time and energy on an interview. If you don’t feel comfortable with the answers you come up with, maybe the new job isn’t right for you.

TECHNICAL

1. Please describe any technical hobbies or interests you have.

2. How do you approach a technical problem? Give an example.

3. What exposure have you had to (software, hardware, product marketing, budgeting, etc.)?

4. Briefly describe a technical project that you found challenging or rewarding.

5. What have you done above and beyond class or course work especially in an area related to your major?

6. Have you published any papers or projects?

7. Have you ever been in a situation where you found yourself without the specific technical knowledge to perform a task essential to your project? What did you do?

PERSONAL

8. What do you consider to be your greatest strengths?

9. Can you name some weaknesses?

10. Define success. Failure.

11. Have you ever had any failures? What did you learn from them?

12. Of which three accomplishments are you most proud?

13. Who are your role models? Why?

14. How does your college education or work experience relate to this job?

15. What motivates you most in a job?

16. Have you had difficulty getting along with a former professor/supervisor/co-worker and how did you handle it?

17. Tell me about yourself.

18. What are your hobbies?

19. Why did you choose to interview with our organization?

20. Describe your ideal job.

21. What can you offer us?

EDUCATION

22. Why did you choose your major?

23. Why did you choose to attend your college or university?

24. Do you think you received a good education? In what ways?

25. In which campus activities did you participate?

26. In what ways do your college education or work experience relate to this job?

27. Which classes in your major did you like best? Least?

28. Which elective classes did you like best? Least? Why?

29. If you were to start over, what would you change about your education?

30. Do you plan to return to school for further education?

EXPERIENCE

31. What job related skills have you developed?

32. Did you work while going to school?

33. What did you learn from these work experiences?

34. What did you enjoy most about your last employment? Least?

35. Have you ever quit a job? Why?

36. Give an example of a situation in which you worked under deadline pressure.

37. Have you ever done any volunteer work? What kind?

38. How do you think a former supervisor would describe your work?

CAREER GOALS

39. Do you prefer to work under supervision or on your own?

40. What kind of boss do you prefer?

41. Would you be successful working with a team?

42. Do you prefer large or small organizations? Why?

43. What other types of positions are you considering?

44. How do you feel about working in a structured environment?

45. Are you able to work on several assignments at once?

46. How do you feel about working overtime?

47. How do you feel about travel?

48. How do you feel about the possibility of relocating?

49. Are you willing to work flextime?

GENERAL

50. What motivates you most in a job?

51. Have you had difficulty getting along with a former professor/ supervisor/co-worker and how did you handle it?

52. Have you ever spoken before a group of people? How large?

53. Why should we hire you rather than another candidate?

54. What do you know about our organization (products or services)?

55. Where do you want to be in five years? Ten years?

The following may not be directly asked, but you should address them:

56. How can you increase their profits?

57. How can you further develop their product line?

58. How can you increase the efficiency of their existing systems?

59. How can you help their business grow?

60. How can you help their department prosper?

61. How can you make your manager look good?

Before you begin interviewing, think about these questions and your possible responses. Discuss them with a career advisor.

The 25 most difficult questions you'll be asked on a job interview. Being prepared is half the battle.

If you are one of those executive types unhappy at your present post and embarking on a New Year's resolution to find a new one, here's a helping hand. The job interview is considered to be the most critical aspect of every expedition that brings you face-to- face with the future boss. One must prepare for it with the same tenacity and quickness as one does for a fencing tournament or a chess match.

This article has been excerpted from "PARTING COMPANY: How to Survive the Loss of a Job and Find Another Successfully" by William J. Morin and James C. Cabrera. Copyright by Drake Beam Morin, inc. Published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Morin is chairman and Cabrera is president of New York-based Drake Beam Morin, nation's major outplacement firm, which has opened offices in Philadelphia.

1. Tell me about yourself.

Since this is often the opening question in an interview, be extra careful that you don't run off at the mouth. Keep your answer to a minute or two at most. Cover four topics: early years, education, work history, and recent career experience. Emphasize this last subject. Remember that this is likely to be a warm-up question. Don't waste your best points on it.

2. What do you know about our organization?

You should be able to discuss products or services, revenues, reputation, image, goals, problems, management style, people, history and philosophy. But don't act as if you know everything about the place. Let your answer show that you have taken the time to do some research, but don't overwhelm the interviewer, and make it clear that you wish to learn more.
You might start your answer in this manner: "In my job search, I've investigated a number of companies.
Yours is one of the few that interests me, for these reasons..."
Give your answer a positive tone. Don't say, "Well, everyone tells me that you're in all sorts of trouble, and that's why I'm here", even if that is why you're there.

3. Why do you want to work for us?

The deadliest answer you can give is "Because I like people." What else would you like-animals?
Here, and throughout the interview, a good answer comes from having done your homework so that you can speak in terms of the company's needs. You might say that your research has shown that the company is doing things you would like to be involved with, and that it's doing them in ways that greatly interest you. For example, if the organization is known for strong management, your answer should mention that fact and show that you would like to be a part of that team. If the company places a great deal of emphasis on research and development, emphasize the fact that you want to create new things and that you know this is a place in which such activity is encouraged. If the organization stresses financial controls, your answer should mention a reverence for numbers.
If you feel that you have to concoct an answer to this question - if, for example, the company stresses research, and you feel that you should mention it even though it really doesn't interest you- then you probably should not be taking that interview, because you probably shouldn't be considering a job with that organization.
Your homework should include learning enough about the company to avoid approaching places where you wouldn't be able -or wouldn't want- to function. Since most of us are poor liars, it's difficult to con anyone in an interview. But even if you should succeed at it, your prize is a job you don't really want.

4. What can you do for us that someone else can't?

Here you have every right, and perhaps an obligation, to toot your own horn and be a bit egotistical. Talk about your record of getting things done, and mention specifics from your resume or list of career accomplishments. Say that your skills and interests, combined with this history of getting results, make you valuable. Mention your ability to set priorities, identify problems, and use your experience and energy to solve them.

5. What do you find most attractive about this position? What seems least attractive about it?

List three or four attractive factors of the job, and mention a single, minor, unattractive item.

6. Why should we hire you?

Create your answer by thinking in terms of your ability, your experience, and your energy. (See question 4.)

7. What do you look for in a job?

Keep your answer oriented to opportunities at this organization. Talk about your desire to perform and be recognized for your contributions. Make your answer oriented toward opportunity rather than personal security.

8. Please give me your definition of [the position for which you are being interviewed].

Keep your answer brief and task oriented. Think in terms of responsibilities and accountability. Make sure that you really do understand what the position involves before you attempt an answer. If you are not certain. Ask the interviewer; he or she may answer the question for you.

9. How long would it take you to make a meaningful contribution to our firm?

Be realistic. Say that, while you would expect to meet pressing demands and pull your own weight from the first day, it might take six months to a year before you could expect to know the organization and its needs well enough to make a major contribution.

10. How long would you stay with us?

Say that you are interested in a career with the organization, but admit that you would have to continue to feel challenged to remain with any organization. Think in terms of, "As long as we both feel achievement-oriented."

11. Your resume suggests that you may be over-qualified or too experienced for this position. What's your opinion?

Emphasize your interest in establishing a long-term association with the organization, and say that you assume that if you perform well in his job, new opportunities will open up for you. Mention that a strong company needs a strong staff. Observe that experienced executives are always at a premium. Suggest that since you are so well qualified, the employer will get a fast return on his investment. Say that a growing, energetic company can never have too much talent.

12. What is your management style?

You should know enough about the company's style to know that your management style will complement it. Possible styles include: task oriented (I'll enjoy problem-solving identifying what's wrong, choosing a solution and implementing it"), results-oriented ("Every management decision I make is determined by how it will affect the bottom line"), or even paternalistic ("I'm committed to taking care of my subordinates and pointing them in the right direction").
A participative style is currently quite popular: an open-door method of managing in which you get things done by motivating people and delegating responsibility.
As you consider this question, think about whether your style will let you work happily and effectively within the organization.

13. Are you a good manager? Can you give me some examples? Do you feel that you have top managerial potential?

14. What do you look for when you hire people?

Think in terms of skills. Initiative, and the adaptability to be able to work comfortably and effectively with others. Mention that you like to hire people who appear capable of moving up in the organization.
15. Have you ever had to fire people? What were the reasons, and how did you handle the situation?

Admit that the situation was not easy, but say that it worked out well, both for the company and, you think, for the individual. Show that, like anyone else, you don't enjoy unpleasant tasks but that you can resolve them efficiently and -in the case of firing someone- humanely.

16. What do you think is the most difficult thing about being a manager or executive?

Mention planning, execution, and cost-control. The most difficult task is to motivate and manage employees to get something planned and completed on time and within the budget.

17. What important trends do you see in our industry?

Be prepared with two or three trends that illustrate how well you understand your industry. You might consider technological challenges or opportunities, economic conditions, or even regulatory demands as you collect your thoughts about the direction in which your business is heading.

18. Why are you leaving (did you leave) your present (last) job?

Be brief, to the point, and as honest as you can without hurting yourself. Refer back to the planning phase of your job search. Where you considered this topic as you set your reference statements. If you were laid off in an across-the-board cutback, say so; otherwise, indicate that the move was your decision, the result of your action. Do not mention personality conflicts.
The interviewer may spend some time probing you on this issue, particularly if it is clear that you were terminated. The "We agreed to disagree" approach may be useful. Remember hat your references are likely to be checked, so don't concoct a story for an interview.

19. How do you feel about leaving all your benefits to find a new job?

Mention that you are concerned, naturally, but not panicked. You are willing to accept some risk to find the right job for yourself. Don't suggest that security might interest you more than getting the job done successfully.

20. In your current (last) position, what features do (did) you like the most? The least?

Be careful and be positive. Describe more features that you liked than disliked. Don't cite personality problems. If you make your last job sound terrible, an interviewer may wonder why you remained there until now.

21. What do you think of your boss?

Be as positive as you can. A potential boss is likely to wonder if you might talk about him in similar terms at some point in the future.

22. Why aren't you earning more at your age?

Say that this is one reason that you are conducting this job search. Don't be defensive.

23. What do you feel this position should pay?

Salary is a delicate topic. We suggest that you defer tying yourself to a precise figure for as long as you can do so politely. You might say, "I understand that the range for this job is between \$______ and \$______. That seems appropriate for the job as I understand it." You might answer the question with a question: "Perhaps you can help me on this one. Can you tell me if there is a range for similar jobs in the organization?"

If you are asked the question during an initial screening interview, you might say that you feel you need to know more about the position's responsibilities before you could give a meaningful answer to that question. Here, too, either by asking the interviewer or search executive (if one is involved), or in research done as part of your homework, you can try to find out whether there is a salary grade attached to the job. If there is, and if you can live with it, say that the range seems right to you.

If the interviewer continues to probe, you might say, "You know that I'm making \$_____ou need to know more about the position's responsibilities before you could give a meaningful answer to that question. Here, too, either by asking the interviewer or search executive (if one is involved), or

in research done as part of your homework, you can try to find out whether there is a salary grade attached to the job. If there is, and if you can live with it, say that the range seems right to you.

If the interviewer continues to probe, you might say, "You know that I'm making \$______ now. Like everyone else, I'd like to improve on that figure, but my major interest is wit
h
the job itself." Remember that the act of taking a new job does not, in and of itself, make you worth more money.

If a search firm is involved, your contact there may be able to help with the salary question. He or she may even be able to run interference for you. If, for instance, he tells you what the position pays, and you tell him that you are earning that amount now and would like to do a bit better, he might go back to the employer and propose that you be offered an additional 10%.

If no p
r
ice range is attached to the job, and the interviewer continues to press the subject, then you will have to respond with a number. You cannot leave the impression that it does not really matter, that you'll accept whatever is offered. If you've been making \$80,000 a year, you can't say that a \$35,000 figure would be fine
w
ithout sounding as if you've given up on yourself. (If you are making a radical career change, however, this kind of disparity may be more reasonable and understandable.)

Don't sell yourself short, but continue to stress the fact that the job itself is
t
he most important thing in your mind
.
The interviewer may be trying to determine just how much you want the job. Don't leave the impression that money is the only thing that is important to you. Link questions of salary to the work itself
.

But whenever possible, say as little as you
c
an about salary until you reach the "final" stage of the interview process. At that point, you know that the company is genuinely interested in you and that it is likely to be flexible

in salary negotiations.

24. What are your long-range goals?

Refer back to the planning phase of your job search. Don't answer, "I want the job you've advertised." Relate your goals to the company you are interviewing: 'in a firm like yours, I would like to..."

25. How successful do you you've been so far?

Say that, all in all, you're happy with

Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?

Server side scripting means that all the script will be executed by the server and interpreted as needed. ASP doesn’t have some of the functionality like sockets, uploading, etc. For these you have to make a custom components usually in VB or VC++. Client side scripting means that the script will be executed immediately in the browser such as form field validation, clock, email validation, etc. Client side scripting is usually done in VBScript or JavaScript. Download time, browser compatibility, and visible code - since JavaScript and VBScript code is included in the HTML page, then anyone can see the code by viewing the page source. Also a possible security hazards for the client computer.

What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class? C#
Should validation (did the user enter a real date) occur server-side or client-side? Why? Client-side validation because there is no need to request a server side date when you could obtain a date from the client machine.

What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?
Enable ViewState turns on the automatic state management feature that enables server controls to re-populate their values on a round trip without requiring you to write any code. This feature is not free however, since the state of a control is passed to and from the server in a hidden form field. You should be aware of when ViewState is helping you and when it is not. For example, if you are binding a control to data on every round trip (as in the datagrid example in tip #4), then you do not need the control to maintain it’s view state, since you will wipe out any re-populated data in any case. ViewState is enabled for all server controls by default. To disable it, set the EnableViewState property of the control to false.

What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?
Server.Transfer() : client is shown as it is on the requesting page only, but the all the content is of the requested page. Data can be persist accros the pages using Context.Item collection, which is one of the best way to transfer data from one page to another keeping the page state alive.
Response.Dedirect() :client know the physical loation (page name and query string as well). Context.Items loses the persisitance when nevigate to destination page. In earlier versions of IIS, if we wanted to send a user to a new Web page, the only option we had was Response.Redirect. While this method does accomplish our goal, it has several important drawbacks. The biggest problem is that this method causes each page to be treated as a separate transaction. Besides making it difficult to maintain your transactional integrity, Response.Redirect introduces some additional headaches. First, it prevents good encapsulation of code. Second, you lose access to all of the properties in the Request object. Sure, there are workarounds, but they’re difficult. Finally, Response.Redirect necessitates a round trip to the client, which, on high-volume sites, causes scalability problems. As you might suspect, Server.Transfer fixes all of these problems. It does this by performing the transfer on the server without requiring a roundtrip to the client.

Can you give an example of when it would be appropriate to use a web service as opposed to a non-serviced .NET component? When to Use Web Services:
Communicating through a Firewall When building a distributed application with 100s/1000s of users spread over multiple locations, there is always the problem of communicating between client and server because of firewalls and proxy servers. Exposing your middle tier components as Web Services and invoking the directly from a Windows UI is a very valid option.
Application Integration When integrating applications written in various languages and running on disparate systems. Or even applications running on the same platform that have been written by separate vendors.
Business-to-Business Integration This is an enabler for B2B intergtation which allows one to expose vital business processes to authorized supplier and customers. An example would be exposing electronic ordering and invoicing, allowing customers to send you purchase orders and suppliers to send you invoices electronically.
Software Reuse This takes place at multiple levels. Code Reuse at the Source code level or binary componet-based resuse. The limiting factor here is that you can reuse the code but not the data behind it. Webservice overcome this limitation. A scenario could be when you are building an app that aggregates the functionality of serveral other Applicatons. Each of these functions could be performed by individual apps, but there is value in perhaps combining the the multiple apps to present a unifiend view in a Portal or Intranet.
When not to use Web Services: Single machine Applicatons When the apps are running on the same machine and need to communicate with each other use a native API. You also have the options of using component technologies such as COM or .NET Componets as there is very little overhead.
Homogeneous Applications on a LAN If you have Win32 or Winforms apps that want to communicate to their server counterpart. It is much more efficient to use DCOM in the case of Win32 apps and .NET Remoting in the case of .NET Apps.
Let’s say I have an existing application written using Visual Studio (VBInterDevand this application utilizes WindowsCOM+ transaction services. How would you approach migrating this application to .NET?
Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset? In ADO, the in-memory representation of data is the recordset. In ADO.NET, it is the dataset. There are important differences between them.
A recordset looks like a single table. If a recordset is to contain data from multiple database tables, it must use a JOIN query, which assembles the data from the various database tables into a single result table. In contrast, a dataset is a collection of one or more tables. The tables within a dataset are called data tables; specifically, they are DataTable objects. If a dataset contains data from multiple database tables, it will typically contain multiple DataTable objects. That is, each DataTable object typically corresponds to a single database table or view. In this way, a dataset can mimic the structure of the underlying database. A dataset usually also contains relationships. A relationship within a dataset is analogous to a foreign-key relationship in a database —that is, it associates rows of the tables with each other. For example, if a dataset contains a table about investors and another table about each investor’s stock purchases, it could also contain a relationship connecting each row of the investor table with the corresponding rows of the purchase table. Because the dataset can hold multiple, separate tables and maintain information about relationships between them, it can hold much richer data structures than a recordset, including self-relating tables and tables with many-to-many relationships.
Sharing Data Between Applications. Transmitting an ADO.NET dataset between applications is much easier than transmitting an ADO disconnected recordset. To transmit an ADO disconnected recordset from one component to another, you use COM marshalling. To transmit data in ADO.NET, you use a dataset, which can transmit an XML stream.
Richer data types.COM marshalling provides a limited set of data types — those defined by the COM standard. Because the transmission of datasets in ADO.NET is based on an XML format, there is no restriction on data types. Thus, the components sharing the dataset can use whatever rich set of data types they would ordinarily use.
Performance. Transmitting a large ADO recordset or a large ADO.NET dataset can consume network resources; as the amount of data grows, the stress placed on the network also rises. Both ADO and ADO.NET let you minimize which data is transmitted. But ADO.NET offers another performance advantage, in that ADO.NET does not require data-type conversions. ADO, which requires COM marshalling to transmit records sets among components, does require that ADO data types be converted to COM data types.
Penetrating Firewalls.A firewall can interfere with two components trying to transmit disconnected ADO recordsets. Remember, firewalls are typically configured to allow HTML text to pass, but to prevent system-level requests (such as COM marshalling) from passing.
Can you give an example of what might be best suited to place in the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines? The Application_Start event is guaranteed to occur only once throughout the lifetime of the application. It’s a good place to initialize global variables. For example, you might want to retrieve a list of products from a database table and place the list in application state or the Cache object. SessionStateModule exposes both Session_Start and Session_End events.
If I’m developing an application that must accomodate multiple security levels though secure login and my ASP.NET web appplication is spanned across three web-servers (using round-robbin load balancing) what would be the best approach to maintain login-in state for the users?
What are ASP.NET Web Forms? How is this technology different than what is available though ASP? Web Forms are the heart and soul of ASP.NET. Web Forms are the User Interface (UI) elements that give your Web applications their look and feel. Web Forms are similar to Windows Forms in that they provide properties, methods, and events for the controls that are placed onto them. However, these UI elements render themselves in the appropriate markup language required by the request, e.g. HTML. If you use Microsoft Visual Studio .NET, you will also get the familiar drag-and-drop interface used to create your UI for your Web application.
How does VB.NET/C# achieve polymorphism? By using Abstract classes/functions.
Can you explain what inheritance is and an example of when you might use it? Inheritance is a fundamental feature of an object oriented system and it is simply the ability to inherit data and functionality from a parent object. Rather than developing new objects from scratch, new code can be based on the work of other programmers, adding only new features that are needed.
How would you implement inheritance using VB.NET/C#? When we set out to implement a class using inheritance, we must first start with an existing class from which we will derive our new subclass. This existing class, or base class, may be part of the .NET system class library framework, it may be part of some other application or .NET assembly, or we may create it as part of our existing application. Once we have a base class, we can then implement one or more subclasses based on that base class. Each of our subclasses will automatically have all of the methods, properties, and events of that base class ? including the implementation behind each method, property, and event. Our subclass can add new methods, properties, and events of its own - extending the original interface with new functionality. Additionally, a subclass can replace the methods and properties of the base class with its own new implementation - effectively overriding the original behavior and replacing it with new behaviors. Essentially inheritance is a way of merging functionality from an existing class into our new subclass. Inheritance also defines rules for how these methods, properties, and events can be merged.
ASP.NET questions, Part 2

Read all | Browse topics: .NET, Web dev

Not all questions have answers, some require additional research. It’s assumed you know the .NET framework essentials well enough to just go over the review questions. I might post some in the future, when I have time.

Tech Interviews comment by admin

Questions are real good, but would be helpful if we get some more .

Thanks,
~bnr.

Tech Interviews comment by bnr

ANS 23.

Every Page object (which your .aspx page is) has nine events, most of which you will not have to worry about in your day to day dealings with ASP.NET. The three that you will deal with the most are:

Page_Init
Page_PreRender

Tech Interviews comment by raj

Tech Interviews comment by raj

ANS39. False

Tech Interviews comment by raj

ANS 40.WSDL=Web Services Description Language

Tech Interviews comment by raj

Question : 45

In VB.NET

Public ReadOnly Property PropertyName As ReturnType
Get
‘Your Property Implementation goes in here
End Get
End Property

in C#

public returntype propertyname
{
get{
//property implementation goes here
}
// Do not write the set implementation
}

Tech Interviews comment by Nikhil

Here are some of the answers:

Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
Server-side runs on a server, client side bitches about the server code not running.

What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
Neither, its a trick question.

Should validation (did the user enter a real date) occur server-side or client-side? Why?
It doesn’t matter. If the user didn’t enter a real date, then he’s a moron.

What does the “EnableViewState” property do? Why would I want it on or off?
You can peak into China’s deep dark secret, Margret Chan. Because she’s scary!

Tech Interviews comment by Anonymous

Ans 1)
ASP is a “server side scripting” which is used in a web pages like e-commerce, database, guest book, etc. Server side scripting means that all the script will be executed by the server and interpreted as needed.
ASP doesn’t have some of the functionality like sockets, uploading, etc. For these you have to make a custom components usually in VB or VC++.

Client side scripting means that the script will be executed immediately in the browser such as form field validation, clock, email validation, etc. Client side scripting is usually done in VBScript or JavaScript.

VBScript , JavaScript ???

VBScript is the client side scripting (script which is executed in your browser). This script looks like VB and it is only supported by Internet Explorer.
JavaScript is also another client side scripting based on Java. This script is supported by Internet Explorer and also Netscape browser

Ans 5)
Server.Transfer() : client is shown as it is on the requesting page only, but the all the content is of the requested page. Data can be persist accros the pages using Context.Item collection, which is one of the best way to transfer data from one page to another keeping the page state alive.

Response.Dedirect() :client know the physical loation (page name and query string as well). Context.Items loses the persisitance when nevigate to destination page

Tech Interviews comment by Sri

1. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
Client-side codes are scripts executed on the client machine when a web page is requested from a web server while server-side codes are executed on the server. Client side programs or scripts have a number of limitations, for example:
Download time, browser compatibility, and visible code – since JavaScript and VBScript code is included in the HTML page, then anyone can see the code by viewing the page source. Also a possible security hazards for the client computer.

Alternatively, there are some benefits to server-side programs:
Benefits
Programs run on a known computer – not dependent on browser.
Greater flexibility in what scripts can do – e.g. access databases, modify files on server.
Code is not viewable by users.
Limitations
You must have your site on a server, which is capable of running your scripts, and permission to create your own scripts.
Can sometimes be slower to run than client side since server access is required.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

2. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
C-Sharp or c#

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

3. Should validation (did the user enter a real date) occur server-side or client-side? Why?
Client-side validation because there is no need to request a server side date when you could obtain a date from the client machine. so many other reasons, see answer #1

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

4. What does the “EnableViewState” property do? Why would I want it on or off?
1. Enable ViewState turns on the automatic state management feature that enables server controls to re-populate their values on a round trip without requiring you to write any code. This feature is not free however, since the state of a control is passed to and from the server in a hidden form field. You should be aware of when ViewState is helping you and when it is not. For example, if you are binding a control to data on every round trip (as in the datagrid example in tip #4), then you do not need the control to maintain it’s view state, since you will wipe out any re-populated data in any case.
ViewState is enabled for all server controls by default. To disable it, set the EnableViewState property of the control to false, as in the following example:

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

“”

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

5. What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?
In earlier versions of IIS, if we wanted to send a user to a new Web page, the only option we had was Response.Redirect. While this method does accomplish our goal, it has several important drawbacks. The biggest problem is that this method causes each page to be treated as a separate transaction. Besides making it difficult to maintain your transactional integrity, Response.Redirect introduces some additional headaches. First, it prevents good encapsulation of code. Second, you lose access to all of the properties in the Request object. Sure, there are workarounds, but they’re difficult. Finally, Response.Redirect necessitates a round trip to the client, which, on high-volume sites, causes scalability problems.
As you might suspect, Server.Transfer fixes all of these problems. It does this by performing the transfer on the server without requiring a roundtrip to the client.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

6. Can you give an example of when it would be appropriate to use a web service as opposed to a non-serviced .NET component?
When to Use Web Services
======================
1) Communicating through a Firewall
- When building a distributed application with 100s/1000s of users spread
over multiple locations, there is always the problem of communicating
between client and server because of firewalls and proxy servers. Exposing
your middle tier components as Web Services and invoking the directly from a
Windows UI is a very valid option.

2) Application Integration
- When integrating applications written in various languages and running on
disparate systems. Or even applications running on the same platform that
have been written by separate vendors.

- This is an enabler for B2B intergtation which allows one to expose vital
business processes to authorized supplier and customers. An example would be
exposing electronic ordering and invoicing, allowing customers to send you
purchase orders and suppliers to send you invoices electronically.

4) Software Reuse
- This takes place at multiple levels. Code Reuse at the Source code level
or binary componet-based resuse. The limiting factor here is that you can
reuse the code but not the data behind it. Webservice overcome this
limitation. A scenario could be when you are building an app that aggregates
the functionality of serveral other Applicatons. Each of these functions
could be performed by individual apps, but there is value in perhaps
combining the the multiple apps to present a unifiend view in a Portal or
Intranet.

Of course there is the Reverse as well –

When NOT to use Web Services
=========================
1) Single machine Applicatons
- When the apps are running on the same machine and need to communicate with
each other use a native API. You also have the options of using component
technologies such as COM or .NET Componets as there is very little overhead.

2) Homogeneous Applications on a LAN
- If you have Win32 or Winforms apps that want to communicate to their
server counterpart. It is much more efficient to use DCOM in the case of
Win32 apps and .NET Remoting in the case of .NET Apps.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

Working on 7

8. Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset? http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/vbcon/html/vbconadopreviousversionsofado.asp

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

9. Can you give an example of what might be best suited to place in the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines?
The Application_Start event is guaranteed to occur only once throughout the lifetime of the application. It’s a good place to initialize global variables. For example, you might want to retrieve a list of products from a database table and place the list in application state or the Cache object.
SessionStateModule exposes both Session_Start and Session_End events.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

Disclaimer: I have done quite a research for the answers to the above questions and I do realize that I have unintentionally left out my sources hence plagiarized by providing these answers. If I offended anyone please note that this is purely for the edification of .NET/C#/ASPX developers. I stand to make no profit or fame from this. Thank you.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

12. How does VB.NET/C# achieve polymorphism?
By using Abstract classes /functions
13. Can you explain what inheritance is and an example of when you might use it?
Inheritance is a fundamental feature of an object oriented system and it is simply the ability to inherit data and functionality from a parent object. Rather than developing new objects from scratch, new code can be based on the work of other programmers, adding only new features that are needed.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

37. Which method do you use to redirect the user to another page without performing a round trip to the client?
Server.transport()
38. What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service SOAP (HTTP Protocol)
39. True or False: A Web service can only be written in .NET (false can also be written in Java)
40. What does WSDL stand for? Web Service Definition Language (WSDL)

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

47. True or False: To test a Web service you must create a windows application or Web application to consume this service? (FALSE)

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

43. What tags do you need to add within the asp:datagrid tags to bind columns manually.

Column tag and an ASP:databound tag

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

34. How do you create a permanent cookie?
This is a trick question. You can’t really set a cookie to permanent but you can use the maxAge property to set a time in seconds.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

I wanted to added to answer 38.
source: http://www.w3.org/2001/03/WSWS-popa/paper12
Transport Protocols
It is essential for the acceptance of Web Services that they are based on established Internet infrastructure. This in fact imposes the usage of of the HTTP, SMTP and FTP protocols based on the TCP/IP family of transports.

Messaging Protocol
The format of messages exchanged between Web Services clients and Web Services should be vendor neutral and should not carry details about the technology used to implement the service. Also, the message format should allow for extensions and different bindings to specific transport protocols. SOAP and ebXML Transport are specifications which fulfill these requirements. We expect that the W3C XML Protocol Working Group defines a successor standard.

I believe you can say HTTP, SMTP, FTP, SOAP and still have the correct answer.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

11. What are ASP.NET Web Forms? How is this technology different than what is available though ASP?
Web Forms are the heart and soul of ASP.NET. Web Forms are the User Interface (UI) elements that give your Web applications their look and feel. Web Forms are similar to Windows Forms in that they provide properties, methods, and events for the controls that are placed onto them. However, these UI elements render themselves in the appropriate markup language required by the request, e.g. HTML. If you use Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET, you will also get the familiar drag-and-drop interface used to create your UI for your Web application.

Web Forms are made up of two components: the visual portion (the ASPX file), and the code behind the form, which resides in a separate class file
The Purpose of Web Forms
Web Forms and ASP.NET were created to overcome some of the limitations of ASP. These new strengths include:

Separation of HTML interface from application logic
A rich set of server-side controls that can detect the browser and send out appropriate markup language such as HTML
Less code to write due to the data binding capabilities of the new server-side .NET controls
Event-based programming model that is familiar to Microsoft Visual Basic® programmers
Compiled code and support for multiple languages, as opposed to ASP which was interpreted as Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting (VBScript) or Microsoft Jscript®
Allows third parties to create controls that provide additional functionality

source: http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dndotnet/html/introwebforms.asp

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

14. How would you implement inheritance using VB.NET/C#?
Implementing Inheritance

When we set out to implement a class using inheritance, we must first start with an existing class from which we will derive our new subclass. This existing class, or base class, may be part of the .NET system class library framework, it may be part of some other application or .NET assembly, or we may create it as part of our existing application.

Once we have a base class, we can then implement one or more subclasses based on that base class. Each of our subclasses will automatically have all of the methods, properties, and events of that base class – including the implementation behind each method, property, and event. Our subclass can add new methods, properties, and events of its own – extending the original interface with new functionality. Additionally, a subclass can replace the methods and properties of the base class with its own new implementation – effectively overriding the original behavior and replacing it with new behaviors.

Essentially inheritance is a way of merging functionality from an existing class into our new subclass. Inheritance also defines rules for how these methods, properties, and events can be merged – including control over how they can be changed or replaced, and how the subclass can add new methods, properties, and events of its own. This is what we’ll explore as we go forward – what are these rules and what syntax do we use in VB.NET to make it all work.?

source: http://www.vbip.com/books/1861004974/chapter_4974_03.asp

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

15. Whats an assembly?
Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.

source: http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/cpguide/html/cpconassemblies.asp

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

16. Describe the difference between inline and code behind - which is best in a loosely coupled solution?

Inline Versus Code-Behind Programming Models
ASP.NET supports two modes of page development:
Page logic code that is written inside blocks within an .aspx file and dynamically compiled the first time the page is requested on the server.
Page logic code that is written within an external class that is compiled prior to deployment on a server and linked “behind” the .aspx file at run time.

source: http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?sckb;EN-US;305141

more sources: http://www.123aspx.com/redir.aspx?res=30544

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

17. Explain what a diffgram is, and a good use for one?

A DiffGram is an XML format that is used to identify current and original versions of data elements. The DataSet uses the DiffGram format to load and persist its contents, and to serialize its contents for transport across a network connection. When a DataSet is written as a DiffGram, it populates the DiffGram with all the necessary information to accurately recreate the contents, though not the schema, of the DataSet, including column values from both the Original and Current row versions, row error information, and row order.

The DiffGram format that is used by the .NET Framework can also be used by other platforms to send and receive information to a .NET Framework application.

When sending and retrieving a DataSet from an XML Web service, the DiffGram format is implicitly used. Additionally, when loading the contents of a DataSet from XML using the ReadXml method, or when writing the contents of a DataSet in XML using the WriteXml method, you can select that the contents be read or written as a DiffGram. For more information, see Loading a DataSet from XML and Writing a DataSet as XML Data.

While the DiffGram format is primarily used by the .NET Framework as a serialization format for the contents of a DataSet, you can also use DiffGrams to modify data in tables in a Microsoft SQL Server™ 2000 database. For more information, see the XML for SQL Server 2000 Web Release 2 (WR2) located at http://msdn.microsoft.com.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

18. Where would you use an iHTTPModule, and what are the limitations of anyapproach you might take in implementing one?

One of ASP.NET’s most useful features is the extensibility of the HTTP pipeline, the path that data takes between client and server. You can use them to extend your ASP.NET applications by adding pre- and post-processing to each HTTP request coming into your application. For example, if you wanted custom authentication facilities for your application, the best technique would be to intercept the request when it comes in and process the request in a custom HTTP module.

source: http://www.dotnet247.com/247reference/articles/1/8066.aspx

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

thanks for acting speedily.
AndrewO

Man must eat, I will continue providing answers later.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

48. How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?

The simple answer off the top of my head is as many CLASSES as possible. In simple terms, .NET compiles the project into a DLL and as you know you can have as many classes in your project as your server can hold. :-)

Tech Interviews comment by Anonymous

24. Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated
dataset with data?

if my DataAdapter is sqlDataAdapter and my DataSet is dsUsers then it is called like so:

source: .NET Framework General Reference

25. Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
Not sure. I would say NO during an Interview. No member function that supports editting in the Repeater Class.

26. Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater
control?
itemTemplate
source: .NET Framework General Reference

27. How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a Repeater control?
AlternatingItemTemplate Like the ItemTemplate element, but rendered for every other
row (alternating items) in the Repeater control. You can specify a different appearance
for the AlternatingItemTemplate element by setting its style properties.
source: .NET Framework General Reference

28. What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code,
in order to bind the data from some data source to the Repeater control?
DataBind:Use this method to bind data from a source to a server control.
This method is commonly used after retrieving a data set through a database query.
source: .NET Framework General Reference

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

28. you must set the DataMember which Gets or sets the specific table in the DataSource to bind to the control.

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

If any body has the important questions or Interview questions pls kindly help me , Iam having the Interview on Mar 15th…

Tech Interviews comment by swapna

30)What method do you use to explicitly kill a user s session? session.abandon

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

32)Which two properties are on every validation control? Ans : ControlToValidate , ErrorMessage

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

35)What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid?ANS:

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

44)Which property on a Combo Box do you set with a column name, prior to setting the DataSource, to Display data in the combo box? ANS : DataValueField

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

46)Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls Matched? Ans : CompareFieldValidator

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

31)How do you turn off cookies for one page in your site? ANS: cookie.discard

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

28)What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code,in order to bind the data from some data source to the Repeater control? Ans: Datasource property and databind() method

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

Ans-:30 Session.Abandon method can be used to explicitly kill the session.

Tech Interviews comment by Vipin

26)Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control? Ans: ItemTemplate

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

35)What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid?ANS:

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

35)What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid?ANS:

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

19)What are the disadvantages of viewstate/what are the benefits?
AnS :

1)Performance becoz the viewstate is stored in the page itself, storing large values can cause the page to slowdown.It can carry only up to 10 KB of data very easily without causing any degraded perfomance. 2) As view state is stored in a hidden field on the page although it stores data in a hashed base64 encoded format, it can be tampered.

*No server resources are required
*simple Implementation
*Automatic retention of page & view state

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

Interview questions

1) what is the difference between sortedList and Hashtable ?
Ans: Hash table and sorted list classes manage a collection of key value pairs the only difference between them is that in sorted list ,the values are sorted by keys and accesible by key as well as by index.

2)What are the different parameter passing techniques c# supports?
byvalue (default),byreference,out and paramarray

3)What is the difference between arraylist and array classes ?
Ans : arraylist size can be dynamically increased where as array size can’t be increased.

4)what is the difference between ref and out parameters ?
Ans : ref –> inout
out –> Out
Argument passed as ref must be initialized before it is passed to the method,where as incase of Out it’s not neccssary.but after a call to the method as an out parameter the variable must be initialized .out parameter can be used when you want to return more than one value from a method.

5)If all the objects of a class need to be share the same variable, how must you declare that variable ?
Ans : shared variables must declared static

6)what is the difference between a class and a interface?
Ans: You can instantiate a class but you cannot instantiate an interface,you can only offer the funtionality of that interface not the implementation.

7)what is a singleton class?
Ans : singleton class can be instantiated only once.

8)what is the purpose of “base” keyword in c# ?
Ans: There are two uses
1) used to access a base class constructor
2) used to access a base class member in the derived class.

9)What is dynamic binding ? How is it different from static binding?

Ans:With dynamic binding, the decision on which object method to call is made at runtime.Dynamic binding is polymorphism. with static binding, the decision to on which method to call is made at compile time.c# uses static binding as the default method dispatching mechanism.

10)What is a virtual function ?
Ans : is a function that you want to force derived classes to override. if a class has any overridden pure virtuals, it is an “abstract” class and you can’t create objects of that type.

11)what are the differences between Datalist DataGrid and datarepeater ?

Ans: DataList
*Has table appearence by default
*Has no autoformat option
*has no default paging & sorting options
*can define separators between elements using template

DataGrid
*Has a grid appearence by default
*has a autoformat option
*has default paging and sorting
*has no separator between elements

DataRepeater

simple,read-only output, has no built in support for selecting or editing items, has no DEFAULT APPEARENCE,
has no default paging.

Tech Interviews comment by nayan

33 & 43 are the same question!!!

Tech Interviews comment by Andrew O

What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid?
ANS :- This code is useful if the hyper-link is in the datagrid & If the user click on the link it redirect to the ABC.aspx page.

Thanks
PP

Tech Interviews comment by pp

Whats an assembly? Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.

Describe the difference between inline and code behind - which is best in a loosely coupled solution? ASP.NET supports two modes of page development: Page logic code that is written inside