Mixed technical Questions and Answers

SQL Server:
1. Explain Third normalization form with an example
2. If a user doesnt have a permission on a table, but he has permission to a view created on it, will he be able to view the data in table?
3. Describe Application Role and explain a scenario when you will use it?
4. Both a UNIQUE constraint and a PRIMARY KEY constraint enforce uniqueness, so when you should use UNIQUE Constraint?
5. What is the difference between the REPEATABLE READ and SERIALIZE isolation levels?
6. Why one should not prefix user stored procedures with sp_?
7. You have several tables, and they are joined together for querying. They have clustered indexes and non clustered indexes. To optimize the performance how you will distribute the tables and their indexes on different file Groups?
8. Which event (Check constraints, Foreign Key, Rule, trigger, Primary key check) will be performed last for integrity check ?
9. After removing a table from database, what other related objects have to be dropped explicitly ?
10. How can you get an identity value inside a trigger, there are different ways to get identity value, explain why you will prefer one on another.
11. How to find out which stored procedure is recompiling?
12. How to stop stored procedures from recompiling?
13. When should one use instead of Trigger?
14. What is a derived table?
15. Explain Third normalization form with an example?
16. Explain Third normalization form with an example?
17. When you should use low fill factor?
18. How you can minimize the deadlock situation?
19. How to choose between a Clustered Index and a Non-Clustered Index?
20. Why there is a performance difference between two similar queries that uses UNION and UNION ALL?
21. Write a SQL Query to find first day of month?
22. A user is a member of Public role and Sales role. Public role has the permission to select on all the table, and Sales role, which doesnt have a select permission on some of the tables. Will that user be able to select from all tables ?
23. Describe Application Role and explain a scenario when you will use it?
24. Both a UNIQUE constraint and a PRIMARY KEY constraint enforce uniqueness, so when you should use UNIQUE Constraint?
25. What is the difference between the REPEATABLE READ and SERIALIZE isolation levels?
26. You have several tables, and they are joined together for querying. They have clustered indexes and non clustered indexes. To optimize the performance how you will distribute the tables and their indexes on different file Groups?
27. Which event (Check constraints, Foreign Key, Rule, trigger, Primary key check) will be performed last for integrity check ?
28. After removing a table from database, what other related objects have to be dropped explicitly ?
29. How can you get an identity value inside a trigger, there are different ways to get identity value, explain why you will prefer one on another.
30. How to find out which stored procedure is recompiling?
31. When should one use instead of Trigger?

1. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
2. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
3. Should validation (did the user enter a real date) occur server-side or client-side? Why?
4. What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?
5. What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?
6. Can you give an example of when it would be appropriate to use a web service as opposed to a non-serviced .NET component?
7. Let's say I have an existing application written using Visual Studio (VB InterDev and this application utilizes Windows COM+ transaction services. How would you approach migrating this application to .NET?
8. Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?
9. Can you give an example of what might be best suited to place in the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines?
10. If I'm developing an application that must accomodate multiple security levels though secure login and my ASP.NET web appplication is spanned across three web-servers (using round-robbin load balancing) what would be the best approach to maintain login-in state for the users?
11. What are ASP.NET Web Forms? How is this technology different than what is available though ASP (?
12. How does VB.NET/C# achieve polymorphism?
13. Can you explain what inheritance is and an example of when you might use it?
14. How would you implement inheritance using VB.NET/C#?
15. Whats an assembly?
16. Describe the difference between inline and code behind - which is best in a loosely coupled solution?
17. Explain what a diffgram is, and a good use for one?
18. Where would you use an iHTTPModule, and what are the limitations of anyapproach you might take in implementing one?
19. What are the disadvantages of viewstate/what are the benefits?
20. Describe session handling in a webfarm, how does it work and what are the limits?
21. How would you get ASP.NET running in Apache web servers - why would you even do this?
22. Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?
23. In what order do the events of an ASPX page execute. As a developer is it important to undertsand these events?
24. Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?
25. Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
26. Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control?
27. How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a Repeater control?
28. What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code, in order to bind the data from some data source to the Repeater control?
29. What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
30. What method do you use to explicitly kill a user s session?
31. How do you turn off cookies for one page in your site?
32. Which two properties are on every validation control?
33. What tags do you need to add within the asp:datagrid tags to bind columns manually?
34. How do you create a permanent cookie?
35. What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid?
36. What is the standard you use to wrap up a call to a Web service
37. Which method do you use to redirect the user to another page without performing a round trip to the client?
38. What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service SOAP
39. True or False: A Web service can only be written in .NET
40. What does WSDL stand for?
41. What property do you have to set to tell the grid which page to go to when using the Pager object?
42. Where on the Internet would you look for Web services?
43. What tags do you need to add within the asp:datagrid tags to bind columns manually.
44. Which property on a Combo Box do you set with a column name, prior to setting the DataSource, to display data in the combo box?
45. How is a property designated as read-only?
46. Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched?
47. True or False: To test a Web service you must create a windows application or Web application to consume this service?
48. How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?
Microsoft programming and databases :
1. 3 main differences between flexgrid control and dbgrid control
2. ActiveX and Types of ActiveX Components in VB
3. Advantage of ActiveX Dll over Active Exe
4. Advantages of disconnected recordsets
5. Benefit of wrapping database calls into MTS transactions
6. Benefits of using MTS
7. Can database schema be changed with DAO, RDO or ADO?
8. Can you create a tabletype of recordset in Jet - connected ODBC database engine?
9. Constructors and destructors
10. Controls which do not have events
11. Default property of datacontrol
12. Define the scope of Public, Private, Friend procedures?
13. Describe Database Connection pooling relative to MTS
14. Describe: In of Process vs. Out of Process component. Which is faster?
15. Difference between a function and a subroutine, Dynaset and
16. Snapshot,early and late binding, image and picture controls,Linked Object and Embedded Object,listbox and combo box,Listindex and Tab index,modal and moduless window, Object and Class,Query unload and unload in form.
17. Declaration and Instantiation an object?
18. Draw and explain Sequence Modal of DAO
19. How can objects on different threads communicate with one another?
20. How can you force new objects to be created on new threads?
21. How does a DCOM component know where to instantiate itself?
22. How to register a component?
23. How to set a shortcut key for label?
24. Kind of components can be used as DCOM servers
25. Name of the control used to call a windows application
26. Name the four different cursor and locking types in ADO and describe them briefly.
27. Need of zorder method, no of controls in form, Property used to add a menus at runtime, Property used to count number of items in a combobox,resize a label control according to your caption.
28. Return value of callback function, The need of tabindex property.
29. Thread pool and management of threads within a thread pool.
30. To set the command button for ESC, Which property needs to be changed?
31. Type Library and what is it's purpose?
32. Types of system controls, container objects, combo box
33. Under the ADO Command Object, what collection is responsible for input to stored procedures?
34. VB and Object Oriented Programming
35. What are the ADO objects? Explain them.
NET Framework interview questions and interviewer's notes
.NET framework overview
1. Has own class libraries. System is the main namespace and all other namespaces are subsets of this.
2. It has CLR(Common language runtime, Common type system, common language specification)
3. All the types are part of CTS and Object is the base class for all the types.
4. If a language said to be .net complaint, it should be compatible with CTS and CLS.
5. All the code compiled into an intermediate language by the .Net language compiler, which is nothing but an assembly.
6. During runtime, JIT of CLR picks the IL code and converts into PE machine code and from there it processes the request.
8. Garbage Collection
9. Dispose, finalize, suppress finalize, Idispose interface
10. Assemblies, Namespace: Assembly is a collection of class/namespaces. An assembly contains Manifest, Metadata, Resource files, IL code
11. Com interoperability, adding references, web references
12. Database connectivity and providers
13. Application Domain
1. Class modifiers: public, private, friend, protected, protected friend, mustinherit, NotInheritable
2. Method modifiers: public, private
3. Overridable
4. Shadows
5. Overloadable
6. Overrides
7. Overloads
8. Set/Get Property
9. IIF
10. Inheritance
11. Polymorphism
12. Delegates
13. Events
14. Reflection
15. Boxing
16. UnBoxing
17. Casting
1. Web Controls: Data grid (templates, sorting, paging, bound columns, unbound columns, data binding), Data list, repeater controls
2. HTML Controls
3. Code behind pages, system.web.ui.page base class
4. Web.config: App settings, identity (impersonate), authentication (windows, forms, anonymous, passport), authorization
5. Databind.eval
6. Trace, Debug
7. Output cache
8. Session management
9. Application, Session
10. Global.asax httpapplication
11. User controls, custom controls, custom rendered controls (postback event, postdatachanged event) usercontrol is the base class
12. Directives
1. Command object (ExecuteNonquery, ExecuteReader, ExecuteXMLReader, ExecuteScalar)
2. DataAdapter object (Fill)
3. Dataset (collection of tables)
4. CommandBuiler object
5. Transaction Object
6. Isolation levels

1. What is a Cartesian product? What causes it?
Expected answer:
A Cartesian product is the result of an unrestricted join of two or more tables. The result set of a three table Cartesian product will have x * y * z number of rows where x, y, z correspond to the number of rows in each table involved in the join. It is causes by specifying a table in the FROM clause without joining it to another table.
2. What is an advantage to using a stored procedure as opposed to passing an SQL query from an application.
Expected answer:
A stored procedure is pre-loaded in memory for faster execution. It allows the DBMS control of permissions for security purposes. It also eliminates the need to recompile components when minor changes occur to the database.
3. What is the difference of a LEFT JOIN and an INNER JOIN statement?
Expected answer:
A LEFT JOIN will take ALL values from the first declared table and matching values from the second declared table based on the column the join has been declared on. An INNER JOIN will take only matching values from both tables
4. When a query is sent to the database and an index is not being used, what type of execution is taking place?
Expected answer:
A table scan.
5. What are the pros and cons of using triggers?
Expected answer:
A trigger is one or more statements of SQL that are being executed in event of data modification in a table to which the trigger belongs.
Triggers enhance the security, efficiency, and standardization of databases.
Triggers can be beneficial when used:
-- to check or modify values before they are actually updated or inserted in the database. This is useful if you need to transform data from the way the user sees it to some internal database format.
-- to run other non-database operations coded in user-defined functions
-- to update data in other tables. This is useful for maintaining relationships between data or in keeping audit trail information.
-- to check against other data in the table or in other tables. This is useful to ensure data integrity when referential integrity constraints aren't appropriate, or when table check constraints limit checking to the current table only.
6. What are the pros and cons of using stored procedures. When would you use them?
7. What are the pros and cons of using cursors? When would you use them?
Micro Soft
1. The three types of DAO Dynaset,Snapshot,Table
2. Why do we use Option Explicit
3. Difference between Dim Object as object AND dim obj as myform
4. How do we make a poperty read only? Private Property Get(Read Only )
5. How do you declare an object in VBscript? Dim object
6. What is the equivalent of VBScript's On Error In Jscript ??
7. How many data types are supported in Vbscript
8. MFC
9. Java
10. Active Server Pages
11. What are session variables??
12. In what languages in ASP written.
13. How do you create Virtual Root in IIS
14. How do you remotely administer MS IIS??
15. What is the key advantage of Windows NT Challenge/Response security?
16. What problems do the vendors of ODBC Technology face with ASP/ADO ?
18. How do you administer Connection Pooling in IIS 3.0
19. How do you administer Connection Pooling in IIS 4.0
20. What are the three Ado objects?? --Connection,command, recordset
21. Two Methods of retrieving SQL
22. How do you assign Construct the where clause without concatenating Field,
value pairs??
23. What cursor type do you use to retrieve multiple recordsets?
24. What action do you have to perform before retrieving data from the next
result set of a stored procedure ??
25. What are The three tags of a form tag in HTML form
26. What are The two tags for framesets
27. How do you create Drop Down Combos in HTML ? select Tag
28. In DHTML what is the difference between FontSize and Font Size ??
A: FontSize is a property, Font Size is a style
29. What is the tag Code Base and why do we use it?
30. How can you have different number of cells for each row of a table?
31. The three file types in NT ? NTFS,Macintosh(HPFS), FAT
32. Describe a two tier Windows NT Domain?
33. Define and explain COM
34. What is IUnknown and what are its three parts??
35. Define Query Interface,Adref,Release
36. Do COM keep track of all the object references(Accounting)??
37. What is Marshalling
38. When is Marshalling not necessary??
Computer architecture interview questions
1. What is pipelining?
2. What are the five stages in a DLX pipeline?
3. For a pipeline with 'n' stages, what’s the ideal throughput? What prevents us from achieving this ideal throughput?
4. What are the different hazards? How do you avoid them?
5. Instead of just 5-8 pipe stages why not have, say, a pipeline with 50 pipe stages?
6. What are Branch Prediction and Branch Target Buffers?
7. How do you handle precise exceptions or interrupts?
8. What is a cache?
9. What's the difference between Write-Through and Write-Back Caches? Explain advantages and disadvantages of each.
10. Cache Size is 64KB, Block size is 32B and the cache is Two-Way Set Associative. For a 32-bit physical address, give the division between Block Offset, Index and Tag.
11. What is Virtual Memory?
12. What is Cache Coherency?
13. What is MESI?
14. What is a Snooping cache?
15. What are the components in a Microprocessor?
16. What is ACBF(Hex) divided by 16?
17. Convert 65(Hex) to Binary
18. Convert a number to its two's compliment and back
19. The CPU is busy but you want to stop and do some other task. How do you do it?
Microsoft Windows 2003 Server
IIS, Scripting, networking
1. What is presentation layer responsible for in the OSI model? The presentation layer establishes the data format prior to passing it along to the network application's interface. TCP/IP networks perform this task at the application layer.
2. Does Windows Server 2003 support IPv6? Yes, run ipv6.exe from command line to disable it.
3. Can Windows Server 2003 function as a bridge? Yes, and it's a new feature for the 2003 product. You can combine several networks and devices connected via several adapters by enabling IP routing.
4. What's the difference between the basic disk and dynamic disk? The basic type contains partitions, extended partitions, logical drivers, and an assortment of static volumes; the dynamic type does not use partitions but dynamically manages volumes and provides advanced storage options
5. What's a media pool? It is any compilation of disks or tapes with the same administrative properties.
6. How do you install recovery console? C:\i386\win32 /cmdcons, assuming that your Win server installation is on drive C.
7. What's new in Terminal Services for Windows 2003 Server? Supports audio transmissions as well, although prepare for heavy network load.
8. What scripts ship with IIS 6.0? iisweb.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and list Web sites, iisftp.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and list FTP sites, iisdir.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and display virtual directories, iisftpdr.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and display virtual directories under an FTP root, iiscnfg.vbs to export and import IIS configuration to an XML file.
9. What's the name of the user who connects to the Web site anonymously? IUSR_computername
10. What secure authentication and encryption mechanisms are supported by IIS 6.0? Basic authentication, Digest authentication, Advanced digest authentication, Certificate-based Web transactions that use PKCS #7/PKCS #10, Fortezza, SSL, Server-Gated Cryptography, Transport Layer Security
11. What's the relation between SSL and TLS? Transport Layer Security (TLS) extends SSL by providing cryptographic authentication.
12. What's the role of http.sys in IIS? It is the point of contact for all incoming HTTP requests. It listens for requests and queues them until they are all processed, no more queues are available, or the Web server is shut down.
13. Where's ASP cache located on IIS 6.0? On disk, as opposed to memory, as it used to be in IIS 5.
14. What is socket pooling? Non-blocking socket usage, introduced in IIS 6.0. More than one application can use a given socket.
15. Describe the process of clustering with Windows 2003 Server when a new node is added. As a node goes online, it searches for other nodes to join by polling the designated internal network. In this way, all nodes are notified of the new node's existence. If other nodes cannot be found on a preexisting cluster, the new node takes control of the quorum resources residing on the shared disk that contains state and configuration data.
16. What applications are not capable of performing in Windows 2003 Server clusters? The ones written exclusively for NetBEUI and IPX.
17. What's a heartbeat? Communication processes between the nodes designed to ensure node's health.
18. What's a threshold in clustered environment? The number of times a restart is attempted, when the node fails.
19. You need to change and admin password on a clustered Windows box, but that requires rebooting the cluster, doesn't it? No, it doesn't. In 2003 environment you can do that via cluster.exe utility which does not require rebooting the entire cluster.
20. For the document of size 1 MB, what size would you expect the index to be with Indexing Service? 150-300 KB, 15-30% is a reasonable expectation.
21. Doesn't the Indexing Service introduce a security flaw when allowing access to the index? No, because users can only view the indices of documents and folders that they have permissions for.
22. What's the typical size of the index? Less then 100K documents - up to 128 MB. More than that - 256+ MB.
23. Which characters should be enclosed in quotes when searching the index? &, @, $, #, ^, ( ), and |.
24. How would you search for C++? Just enter C++, since + is not a special character (and neither is C).
25. What about Barnes&Noble? Should be searched for as Barnes'&'Noble.
26. Are the searches case-sensitive? No.
27. What's the order of precedence of Boolean operators in Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Indexing Service? NOT, AND, NEAR, OR.
28. What's a vector space query? A multiple-word query where the weight can be assigned to each of the search words. For example, if you want to fight information on 'black hole', but would prefer to give more weight to the word hole, you can enter black[1] hole[20] into the search window.
29. What's a response queue? It's the message queue that holds response messages sent from the receiving application to the sender.
30. What's MQPing used for? Testing Microsoft Message Queue services between the nodes on a network.
31. Which add-on package for Windows 2003 Server would you use to monitor the installed software and license compliance? SMS (System Management Server).
32. Which service do you use to set up various alerts? MOM (Microsoft Operations Manager).
33. What languages does Windows Scripting Host support? VB, VBScript, JScript.
Windows Server 2003 interview and certification questions:
1. How do you double-boot a Win 2003 server box? The Boot.ini file is set as read-only, system, and hidden to prevent unwanted editing. To change the Boot.ini timeout and default settings, use the System option in Control Panel from the Advanced tab and select Startup.
2. What do you do if earlier application doesn't run on Windows Server 2003? When an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of Windows cannot be loaded during the setup function or if it later malfunctions, you must run the compatibility mode function. This is accomplished by right-clicking the application or setup program and selecting Properties --> Compatibility --> selecting the previously supported operating system.
3. If you uninstall Windows Server 2003, which operating systems can you revert to? Win ME and Win 98.
4. How do you get to Internet Firewall settings? Start --> Control Panel --> Network and Internet Connections --> Network Connections.
5. What are the Windows Server 2003 keyboard shortcuts? Winkey opens or closes the Start menu. Winkey + BREAK displays the System Properties dialog box. Winkey + TAB moves the focus to the next application in the taskbar. Winkey + SHIFT + TAB moves the focus to the previous application in the taskbar. Winkey + B moves the focus to the notification area. Winkey + D shows the desktop. Winkey + E opens Windows Explorer showing My Computer. Winkey + F opens the Search panel. Winkey + CTRL + F opens the Search panel with Search for Computers module selected. Winkey + F1 opens Help. Winkey + M minimizes all. Winkey + SHIFT+ M undoes minimization. Winkey + R opens Run dialog. Winkey + U opens the Utility Manager. Winkey + L locks the computer.
6. What is Active Directory? Active Directory is a network-based object store and service that locates and manages resources, and makes these resources available to authorized users and groups. An underlying principle of the Active Directory is that everything is considered an object—people, servers, workstations, printers, documents, and devices. Each object has certain attributes and its own security access control list (ACL).
7. Where are the Windows NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) and its Backup Domain Controller (BDC) in Server 2003? The Active Directory replaces them. Now all domain controllers share a multimaster peer-to-peer read and write relationship that hosts copies of the Active Directory.
8. How long does it take for security changes to be replicated among the domain controllers? Security-related modifications are replicated within a site immediately. These changes include account and individual user lockout policies, changes to password policies, changes to computer account passwords, and modifications to the Local Security Authority (LSA).
9. What's new in Windows Server 2003 regarding the DNS management? When DC promotion occurs with an existing forest, the Active Directory Installation Wizard contacts an existing DC to update the directory and replicate from the DC the required portions of the directory. If the wizard fails to locate a DC, it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and how to fix the problem. In order to be located on a network, every DC must register in DNS DC locator DNS records. The Active Directory Installation Wizard verifies a proper configuration of the DNS infrastructure. All DNS configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the Active Directory Installation Wizard.
10. When should you create a forest? Organizations that operate on radically different bases may require separate trees with distinct namespaces. Unique trade or brand names often give rise to separate DNS identities. Organizations merge or are acquired and naming continuity is desired. Organizations form partnerships and joint ventures. While access to common resources is desired, a separately defined tree can enforce more direct administrative and security restrictions.
11. How can you authenticate between forests? Four types of authentication are used across forests: (1) Kerberos and NTLM network logon for remote access to a server in another forest; (2) Kerberos and NTLM interactive logon for physical logon outside the user's home forest; (3) Kerberos delegation to N-tier application in another forest; and (4) user principal name (UPN) credentials.
12. What snap-in administrative tools are available for Active Directory? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager, Active Directory Sites and Services Manager, Active Directory Users and Group Manager, Active Directory Replication (optional, available from the Resource Kit), Active Directory Schema Manager (optional, available from adminpak)
13. What types of classes exist in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory?
o Structural class. The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory objects are created. Structural classes are developed from either the modification of an existing structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes.
o Abstract class. Abstract classes are so named because they take the form of templates that actually create other templates (abstracts) and structural and auxiliary classes. Think of abstract classes as frameworks for the defining objects.
o Auxiliary class. The auxiliary class is a list of attributes. Rather than apply numerous attributes when creating a structural class, it provides a streamlined alternative by applying a combination of attributes with a single include action.
o 88 class. The 88 class includes object classes defined prior to 1993, when the 1988 X.500 specification was adopted. This type does not use the structural, abstract, and auxiliary definitions, nor is it in common use for the development of objects in Windows Server 2003 environments.
14. How do you delete a lingering object? Windows Server 2003 provides a command called Repadmin that provides the ability to delete lingering objects in the Active Directory.
15. What is Global Catalog? The Global Catalog authenticates network user logons and fields inquiries about objects across a forest or tree. Every domain has at least one GC that is hosted on a domain controller. In Windows 2000, there was typically one GC on every site in order to prevent user logon failures across the network.
16. How is user account security established in Windows Server 2003? When an account is created, it is given a unique access number known as a security identifier (SID). Every group to which the user belongs has an associated SID. The user and related group SIDs together form the user account's security token, which determines access levels to objects throughout the system and network. SIDs from the security token are mapped to the access control list (ACL) of any object the user attempts to access.
17. If I delete a user and then create a new account with the same username and password, would the SID and permissions stay the same? No. If you delete a user account and attempt to recreate it with the same user name and password, the SID will be different.
18. What do you do with secure sign-ons in an organization with many roaming users? Credential Management feature of Windows Server 2003 provides a consistent single sign-on experience for users. This can be useful for roaming users who move between computer systems. The Credential Management feature provides a secure store of user credentials that includes passwords and X.509 certificates.
19. Anything special you should do when adding a user that has a Mac? "Save password as encrypted clear text" must be selected on User Properties Account Tab Options, since the Macs only store their passwords that way.
20. What remote access options does Windows Server 2003 support? Dial-in, VPN, dial-in with callback.
21. Where are the documents and settings for the roaming profile stored? All the documents and environmental settings for the roaming user are stored locally on the system, and, when the user logs off, all changes to the locally stored profile are copied to the shared server folder. Therefore, the first time a roaming user logs on to a new system the logon process may take some time, depending on how large his profile folder is.
22. Where are the settings for all the users stored on a given machine? \Document and Settings\All Users
23. What languages can you use for log-on scripts? JavaScipt, VBScript, DOS batch files (.com, .bat, or even .exe)